What is the relation between the two wives of a man called?
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In the Old Testament, they are called rival wives (Leviticus 18:18, NIV). KJV uses a descriptive phrase "to vex her."
There is a description of the marriage between a man and two sisters: a sororate marriage. This word is close, but perhaps not exactly what you are looking for. If you called the relationship "sororate," you would probably be understood.
Amongst polygamist American sects, apparently the term sister-wife is used when several women are married to the same man. These women are not actually sisters by blood, but more like sisters-in-law, and they refer to each other as sister-wives.
There’s even a “reality TV” program about one such plural family, named Sister Wives. From Wikipedia: