I am trying to find the most common way to refer to a soccer team's shield (or coat of arms).
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Checking the websites and wikipedia pages of half a dozen football teams, badge seems to be the most popular term, followed by crest and logo.
This seems like a question for which Google Ngrams should be perfect; but oddly, looking for phrases like
Perhaps logo (an identifying symbol, often for use in advertising) or insignia (a distinguishing mark or sign)...?
Edit to add: I would guess that "logo" is the most commonly used term since it is advertising-oriented and most of the time I'd expect that their mark is being referred to in an advertising-related way (selling towels or shirts or other marketing materials, for example).