As in "Hickory Dickory Dock; the Mouse ran up the Clock..." (Perhaps there is a separate term for a real word used nonsensically (Hickory and Dock). Is there a word for this sort of usage?)
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I have a few ideas that I think fit better than neologism:
I think the first two are the closest, and the term nonce word has the advantage of being fairly common in literary and linguistic contexts. Logatome might be a little closer to what you're looking for, although it's not quite as specific as your request, I think.
One option is that dickory is a neologism. The main definition of this is:
Wikipedia adds that a neologism:
From the above "dickory" is a neologism, as it was created to rhyme with "hickory".
Some famous examples of neologisms are from Lewis Carroll, who was apparently known as a neologistic poet. His famous poem Jabberwocky begins with the lines:
The words in bold are neologisms that he created in order to write the poem.
Another option is simply calling dickory a nonsense word:
Related to this is gibberish:
Because "Jabberwocky", Carrol's nonsense poem, is referred to as both neologistic and gibberish, I would think that any of these terms could apply.
The answer my English teacher would have given is that this is a contrivance. That is, it's a word contrived specifically for the purpose of a rhyme or alliteration. This means the poem could risk being criticised as "contrived".
But I feel like this doesn't fully answer your question since the word contrivance can be used for anything that's contrived, not just words.
I'd also agree with the terms neologism, nonsense and gibberish but neologism can mean a new word for any purpose, nonsense can mean any content that makes no sense, and gibberish tends to refer to spoken word, not written. None of these are specific to poetry or other writing either.
I don't think there is a word that fits exactly, but if I were to coin one it would be a "Seuss-ism". He alone of all the charming abusers of the English language can be remember with sufficient affection to deserve such an eponym.