I'm not actually familiar with that term, although it makes perfect sense to me in context. Perhaps it's European English? At any rate, my answer would be that it's appropriate to use that term any time it would also be appropriate to use the term "programming."
And as it's not common to refer to a party or most social events as a "program" or as "programming," it would probably be unconventional to use "counterprogramming" in the same context.
However, that doesn't mean it's invalid, in my opinion, only non-conventional. And there are times when using a non-conventional phrase is precisely what you want to do.