What are the meaning and origin of the suffix ‑don, as in the words pteranodon and megalodon?
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-odon (not just -don) means tooth. It is a variation of the suffix -odont, which comes from odon, which is Greek for tooth.
The suffix is not -don but -odon... Look at the etymology for "Ptenarodon":
"Odont" still survives in Italian (I'm not aware about other languages), for example in the medical field "Odontoiatria" which treats about preventing/healing deseases that affect teeth, mandibles, gum, etc.