Is there a word for specifically leaving behind a trace of yourself for others to find? Conceptually, something between a time capsule and geocaching.
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There are a few words that denote the idea of a personal mark or signature that could encapsulate one's name. The idea of marking something or leaving a trace behind is very similar to the idea of signing.
Further than that, however, are the following concepts:
If you write your signature (or "[name] was here") as graffiti on a wall, that is a tag, and the action is tagging.
I have heard the term leave-behind for an object that you give away so that people will remember you (for example, salespeople leaving trinkets). This is marketing jargon, though, so it doesn't seem to match what you're looking for.
I can think of several nouns that could describe the thing or sign that is left (memento, trace, sign, mark, ...) but I can't think of a verb that describes the action of leaving it, in the sense that you seek.
Legacy seems a good choice, given OP's requested "time capsule" connotation.
The word has become a bit tainted of late, because of all that legacy computer code. But it still has plenty of positive associations, and leaving a good legacy for the next generation is dear to the hearts of many.