Every time I want to use an antonym to "pertinent", I think of "impertinent", which I don't like to use because of its more common meaning. How did "impertinent" come to mean "intrusive or presumptuous, as persons or their actions; insolently rude; uncivil" (Dictionary.com)?
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Etymology Online suggests that the use of impertinent to mean "rudely bold" is connected to similar use in French, and happened around 1680. It also offers the tantalizing tidbit
Now the first thing I think of when I see "Molière" is intermediate French class and the play Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme. Jean-Batiste Poquelin aka Molière was a French playwright whose satiric plays centered around characters who were taken out of their 'natural' element. In Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme, for instance, is the story of a middle class man who aspires to the aristocracy. He is like a fish out of water as he tries to learn to be a gentleman, and much hilarity ensues.
If we look closely at the etymology of the word, it is not too much of a stretch to equate "not pertaining to something" with "not a part of something." The association with Molière's works certainly could have helped impertinence take on this slightly altered meaning.
So it would seem that the "intrusive or presumptuous" meaning of impertinence is fashionably French.
The meaning of impertinent are two:
At least in the second case, impertinent is an antonym of pertinent.
The original meaning of the word is the second one; the meaning then slowly changed to the first one.
The Wiktionary has a note about the usage of impertinent:
"Pertinent" means "topical."
In its original form, "impertinent" meant "not topical," or in the language of this site, "off topic." That is actually an offense, because being "off topic" is widely seen as a form of "rudeness," or "lack of respect."
Over time, "impertinent" took on the connotations of "active," rather than "passive" rudeness. That is, it started to gain the meaning of outright disrespect (insolent or intrusive) as opposed to the milder "showing lack of respect" (rude or uncivil).
Sense of "rudely bold" is 1680s, probably modeled on similar use in French, especially by Molière, from notion of meddling with what is beyond one's proper sphere.