I think your teacher is either "full of it" or "misinformed"
While it may be true that in English we usually enumerate parts of the body from the outside in, I'd suspect it has more to do with creating a physical starting point that is furthest from our eyes and looking for a way to create a list without forgetting something. I doubt this is limited to English, but is more of a "human" thing.
For random objects, I'd suspect people probably sort from easiest to recall to most difficult, or from most to least favorite, from biggest to smallest, by what sounds right or just randomly... or according to a set phrase, rhyme or song that's established culturally.
Lions and tigers and bears, oh my!
It's raining cats and dogs
strawberry rhubarb pie
They fight like cats and dogs
They're playing a game of cat and mouse
I'll have a ham and cheese sandwich
Would you like some cheese and crackers?
I'm having a wine and cheese party
I feel like a rum and coke
I'll take a Coke and Lime
In some of those examples, the more important element is stated first, but in many, the order has been established naturally, with less importance to order. Saying that, I'm sure there are certain patterns you could find based on how things sound together, or how many syllables there are... but the opposite is not wrong.