One example of this is Polish - polish. I remembered another pair but forgot it. Can somebody help?
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There are more than two actually.
Here's a list of twelve heteronym pairs in which one word is capitalized (typically, a proper noun), and the other is not:
– words taken from Richard Stevens's List of Heteronyms
Scone/scone and Lima/lima can be added to the list.
The following words are also pronounced differently.
A few examples taken from the Wikipedia page:
The term English is similar to Polish in that it too can be spelled with or without a capital letter, but it is not a heteronym because its pronunciation remains identical. When a word differs in meaning, but its pronunciation doesn't change, it is called a homophone
Anther example is Pole (a Polish person) pole (another name for rod) and the verb to pole
Yes, such a word is called a "homograph." Aside from "Polish" and "polish," another exemplar homograph is "wind" (blowing air) and "wind" (what you do to watch).
If you are looking for another word where the initial capital letter is the all-important factor, then consider:
Moped (motorized bicycle by Honda)
moped (preterit tense of the verb "to mope")
Before it became a common noun, the proper noun "Moped" was a portmanteau formed by Honda to market its motorized bicycle.
Any such initial capital letter difference is going to have to involve a word that is considered proper like this, like Polish.
There is no generalized rule in English about capital letters changing pronunciation. What you have observed are incidental cases where a capital letter allows you to distinguish between a proper noun (or derivative) and another word with a different meaning and/or pronunciation (and typically origin) that happens to have the same spelling.
Inquisitive words are sometimes pronounced differently. "Where is the post office?" vs. "The keys were right where I left them."