I present words and phrases separately as they influence the emotional charge that is delivered in different ways - words are building blocks, but they are perceived in the context of speech figures:
1) word that has a lot of emotion behind it
the first candidate I found are:
- glittering generalities, which (according to wikipedia) are emotionally appealing words so closely associated with highly-valued concepts and beliefs that they carry conviction without supporting information or reason.
They quote Orwell's essay "Politics and the English Language":
The word Fascism has now no meaning except in so far as it signifies "something not desirable." The words democracy, socialism, freedom, patriotic, realistic, justice have each of them several different meanings which cannot be reconciled with one another. In the case of a word like democracy, not only is there no agreed definition, but the attempt to make one is resisted from all sides. It is almost universally felt that when we call a country democratic we are praising it: consequently the defenders of every kind of regime claim that it is a democracy, and fear that they might have to stop using that word if it were tied down to any one meaning. Words of this kind are often used in a consciously dishonest way.
However it seems I rushed over the definition; wikipedia states that the term is used for words with two characteristics: vague and positive (see also virtue word)
Following related links you will find: ideograph
the use of particular words and phrases as political language in a way that captures (as well as creates or reinforces) particular ideological positions.
examples: liberty, religion, patriarchy, property, family values, equality
Following Orwell's essay, he refers to such words regardless of if they have positive or negative connotation as: meaningless words. This is, of course in general context much too wide, so rhetorical or political context has to be specified.
The whole article of loaded language (especially related links) might be interesting to you.
If you are looking for a common word, not intending to repeat what others wrote let me list synonyms for the word inflated, just to illustrate how a lot of words might be applicable: blown, blown up, bombastic, declamatory, distended, exaggerated, flatulent, flowery, grandiloquent, incrassate, magniloquent, overloaded, plethoric, pompous, portentous, rhetorical, swollen, tumescent, tumid, turgescent, turgid, tympanic, tympanitic, wordy. This is only to illustrate, inflated is not even my first choice.
Each of these words can describe words that are emotionally charged in some way.
2) phrase that has a lot of emotion behind it
When talking about phrases we should talk about figures. The words mentioned above (democracy, etc) can be very effective in rhetorical figures, but furthermore rhetoric actually can make some of the words emotionally charged by repetitive use of certain themes (which is common in politics).
If you look at classical rhetoric, you will find that all appeals are either:
Pathos, which studies the appeal to emotion, there are many figures, some of which appeal specifically to fear ("sending messages to your medulla oblongata to scare you into voting"):
- perclusio, a threat against someone, or something
- cataplexis, threatening or prophesying payback for ill doing
- exuscitatio, does not appeal to fear directly, but tries to stir anger
these are figures from classical rhetoric but maybe the subject of propaganda is more pertinent for your question. I see rhetoric as "the art and study of the effective use of language" i.e. something that everyone does, where propaganda is type of communication that chooses any means to "influence the attitude of a community".
The techniques employed in propaganda are often based on fear. To illustrate let me list a few:
- appeal to fear, "Voting for him is the same as voting for the terrorists."
- fud, fear, uncertainty and doubt
- name calling can be used to raise prejudice and start fear
- obtain disproval links to defamation (calumny, vilification, traducement, slander/libel) used for suggesting that the idea is popular with groups hated, feared, or held in contempt by the target audience
Maybe I have expanded the phrases section too much and it can be seen not relevant to the question, however I wanted to stress the idea that for glittering generalities, ideographs and meaningless words their loaded or charged aspect is actually created through rhetoric overly appealing to emotions (or through propaganda).
NOTE: Not directly related, but potentially interesting read is also the godwin faq.