Is the English adjective "whole" genealogically related in any way to the adjective "holos", which means "whole" in Koine (and possibly other varieties of Greek; I'm not sure), and has a similar pronunciation? If so, how are they related?
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They sound very similar but are actually unrelated.
The Proto-Indo-European root of whole is *koilas. From etymonline:
Greek holos is related to English safe and several other words, including Catholic.