I hope this question isn't off-topic.
I heard a madrigal with the following verse which bothers me somewhat, grammatically.
Cruel, wilt thou persever?
Peace to leave ever?
Peace shalt thou have and gladness,
But when in sadness,
When thou the morn seest ev'n,
To fall from heav'n.
Thomas Morley (1597)
Cruel seems to be used as a noun instead of an adjective. Is this non-standard or common use of the time? Even if so, and allowing for poetic license, how is this to be understood: personifying cruelty and addressing it or some other way? Also, but are there separate terms for the following kinds of liberty taken in poetry?
- terms for using non-standard grammar from an unexpected part of speech (as in cruel wilt thou persever?) or a double negative, (as in I can't get no satisfaction - Rolling Stones) in a line in order to get the lines to scan?
- a term for using a contractions to get the lines to scan, as in ev'n and heav'n
- I was able to find a term for using a word to rhyme that doesn't quite rhyme, as in come, one and home or ev'n and heav'n: (assonance), but feel free to correct me if I'm wrong.