This happens specifically often in the technology press:
- There's no point trying to ascribe motives to what Redmond [instead of "Microsoft"] does.
- We'll see shortly if Cupertino [instead of "Apple"] thinks likewise ...
I'm certain its use is much wider though I can't think of many examples right now. Using "Detroit" as another name for the US auto industry is slightly wider:
- Who says that Detroit does not sell cars Americans want to drive?
Anyway, I have a suspicion there is a name for this so what is it?