For start, we should define the paragraph. There are many definitions of it. Let's take, that it is a non-named, but maybe numbered sequence of sentences, visible as one text block.
Second, I won't speak on sub- and super- terms. Obviously, we could add them at wish. Let's search for the "naked" terms.
I thought, the most elaborated documents makes the Catholic Church.
Also they have about 4-5 levels under their paragraph. Names of them are unknown for me. But it is obvious that their paragraph is something else, and much greater than usual one - about 8 A4 pages.
Lawyers love complicated documents, too. According to this law site,
Clauses could be equivalent to
Articles. They also add
Items. Their sections are below paragraphs and divided in
Phrases - obviously, equivalent to our paragraph.
A West African lawyer site "Akoma Ntoso" gives us even more structural terms. It adds to already mentioned:
title can appear not only as a name of some element, but as that very element. On the contrary the
article can mean the title of something (explained here)
list we are coming to structural elements, that are on the same level with usual ones, but have special name due to their special use.
Also, there are names for special kinds of texts. They can have special names for structural elements. Hunting with Thesaurus in the Free Dictionary, I have found:
- canto - a major division of a long poem
- episode - a brief section of a literary or dramatic work that forms part of a connected series
- passage - a section of text; particularly a section of medium length
- sura - one of the sections (or chapters) in the Koran; "the Quran is divided in 114 suras"
- mezuza, mezuzah - religious texts from Deuteronomy inscribed on parchment and rolled up in a case that is attached to the doorframe of many Jewish households in accordance with Jewish law
Feel free to use >-)