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I can't find the following phrase in an dictionary: "to throw down" [with somebody]. What does it mean?

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up vote 8 down vote accepted

"To throw down" means to fight someone (usually physical). It's a colloquial expression.

Interestingly, one entry on Urban Dictionary attributes its origin to "throwing down the gauntlet" an old tradition of throwing down ones gloves to challenge someone. The person challenging the other would throw down his glove or gauntlet, and the person accepting the challenge 'would take it up'.

You also see it used in popular culture like the TV show Throwdown with Bobby Flay, which is a show where Bobby Flay challenges people to cooking competitions.

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Not to be confused with "to throw down cash" which usually means "to contribute to". –  KitFox May 16 '11 at 20:06
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Or throw up with Sb. Vomiting is a symptom of Antimony poisoning –  mgb May 16 '11 at 20:08
    
Yes, but throwing up with somebody is probably food poisoning. Or an eating disorder. –  KitFox May 16 '11 at 20:11
    
Note this example from the early 1900s: "when he threw down on me I put up my hands and he shot me": goo.gl/znPhU –  The Raven May 16 '11 at 20:21
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