I recently read the beautiful poem by Samuel Coleridge. Why did he call it a rime? I looked up rime on the dictionary, and it means a thin layer of ice; so was the name playing around with the rhyme of the words "rime" and "rhyme" at the same time, referring to the icy time when the Ancient Mariner killed the albatross (that was when the ship was somewhere near the Southern Pole)?
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It's simply an archaic, variant spelling. From Wikipedia:
The poem was first published in 1798 - but even by the standards of the time, it had a lot of archaic words and spellings.
It was substantially revised by Coleridge before being republished some 20 years later, but he kept lots of archaic spellings, including rime.
I'd just say Coleridge did this for artistic effect, and leave it at that. But here's some more detail if you want to follow it up.
Look at the age of the book, 1798, pre-dictionary.
It was originally called The Rime of the Ancyent Marinere, some of the words have been corrected. Not all of them have. Rime can still be used for rhyme.