Corner kick, free kick, penalty kick — how can I call those kicks? "Deadplay kicks", "fixed kicks"?
Is there any special naming for this type of kicks?
How about set piece?
Seeing that a penalty is a type of free kick, that should cover all your cases.
Wiktionary has this usage example:
Deadball kicks would be the straightforward answer - or deadball plays if you include throw-ins as well.
If it's a planned move (as with a corner, or an attacking free-kick or throw-in) then it's a set piece - that would usually be an attack on goal.