On the off-chance that you meant for the "being your wife" bit to be an absolute phrase, than we could fix up your sentences in this way. Unfortunately, the subjunctive just won't work in some of these sentences in current English.
“If I, (being) your wife, am a shrew, you have the option of divorcing me.” You don't want a subjunctive here, since what you have is a simple condition (note that your apodosis is in the indicative). If you wanted a subjunctive-like condition, you'd have to change it to something like “If I, (being) your wife, were (being) a shrew, you would have the option of divorcing me.”
“If I were being crowned May queen, I would wear a better dress.” This sentence is just fine! “If I were being crowned May queen, I would be wearing a better dress” is also OK, though it changes the meaning slightly.
“If I, being manager, shall be impossible, blah blah blah.” This is OK, but somewhat archaic-sounding; today, we’d probably say “If I, being manager, should be impossible…”.
Of course, the first and last sentence are pretty awkward with the “being [something]” phrase embedded in them.