Take the 2-minute tour ×
English Language & Usage Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for linguists, etymologists, and serious English language enthusiasts. It's 100% free, no registration required.

In contracts numbers are usually written twice: in numerical and literal form.

I understand the vast majority of text in a typical contract can be safely deleted without impacting the core message due to the typical insane amount of repetition and unnecessary verboseness, but I don't really understand what's the point of writing some (not even all) numbers twice.

For example:

You agree to these Terms of Use on behalf of yourself and, at your discretion, for one (1) minor child for whom you are a parent or guardian and whom you have authorized to use the account you create on the Service.

It's very inconsistent, sometimes they appear in only numerical form:


Sometimes only literal:

[...] includes two components [...]

share|improve this question
Seems like more of a legal question than a grammar question. –  JohnFx Aug 29 '10 at 19:23
plus one (+1): good question –  b.roth Aug 29 '10 at 23:19
I once received a piece of computer library code from someone who had written, in all the comments, things like: "This takes one (1) argument." and "The tree now has three (3) members". –  delete Aug 30 '10 at 1:17
Oh yes there was an example here too: english.stackexchange.com/questions/1858/couple-vs-few/… –  delete Aug 31 '10 at 2:31
" understand the vast majority of text in a typical contract can be safely deleted without impacting the core message due to the typical insane amount of repetition and unnecessary verboseness" - wrong. it is not English, it is "legalese", and for a contract to be legally binding in all the correct ways it usually does have to say all those things. –  Claudiu Dec 14 '10 at 19:45
add comment

4 Answers

up vote 8 down vote accepted

Its done to make any tempering with the document difficult. Maybe one can change the number in one place but it wont be easy reflecting the change in the other representation

share|improve this answer
add comment

Checks (bank drafts) have the transaction amount written twice: once in numerals and once spelled out. The numerals are the "convenience amount" and the words are the "legal amount" in banking parlance. When they don't agree, the legal amount trumps the convenience amount on the theory that it's harder to tamper with the words than the digits. (This applies in the U.S. I don't know if the terminology and rules are the same elsewhere.)

I assume the same rules apply to contracts.

share|improve this answer
add comment

It's done to reduce the chances that something might be interpreted ambiguously. That and attorneys are paid (effectively) by the word. Another place you will see this duplication is for the amount written on a check. It's done for the same reason.

As to why it's not consistent, I have no idea.

share|improve this answer
How can "1, 2, 3"... or "one, two, three" be interpreted ambiguously? What do you mean? –  b.roth Aug 29 '10 at 23:15
on a cheque it's duplicated to avoid fraud, not (only) to reduce ambiguity or misunderstanding. –  Mr. Shiny and New 安宇 Aug 30 '10 at 16:56
Additionally, on a check, the amount written in words is the legal amount. As mentioned, the numeral form is included for convenience and fraud prevention. IIRC, only cardinal numbers are written twice like that, while ordinal numbers are not. In the case of referencing a part of the document with many levels of hierarchy, that kind of redundancy would be more confusing instead of less. –  waymost Aug 30 '10 at 18:22
@Bruno: When contracts are parsed down to the comma, it's amazing what can be interpreted ambiguously. Slightly off topic, but I had heard that someone who was primarily a Spanish-speaker overdosed on some medication because the instructions were to take it once daily (eleven in Spanish). It's probably apocryphal, but a redundant numeral form might have prevented the accident. –  Dennis Williamson Aug 30 '10 at 22:33
On the subject of checks, see money.stackexchange.com/questions/3278/…. –  mmyers Sep 1 '10 at 17:33
add comment

I do this in almost all of my writing, even emails, and I do it so that it's easier to scan the document and see the numbers. It's just one of the techniques I use to make my writing easier to read. In a multiline paragraph it is easy to miss the one and the two and the three but it's a lot more difficult to miss the one (1) and the two (2) and the three (3). I'm no expert on English even though I am a native speak (at my university we would commonly self-identify with the phrase "I are an en-ga-neer!") but I have extensive experience in written communication and there are many things I've learned to do that make it easier to communicate, such as:

Use of Headings to Denote Sections

  • Use bullet points to delineate multiple points,

  • Use of many paragraphs with lots of white space also to improve ability to be read by scanning,

  • Bolding of certain phrases for emphasis,

  • And of course writing numbers twice (2x) so they are more easily seen.

Note I wrote the above paragraph long to emphasize the point, not because it was clearer.

So in summary I've no idea if it is correct or not, but I personally do it for clarity to help the reader.

share|improve this answer
+1 for I are an en-ga-neer! :D –  user19341 Dec 19 '12 at 6:16
add comment

protected by RegDwigнt Jun 25 '11 at 11:34

Thank you for your interest in this question. Because it has attracted low-quality answers, posting an answer now requires 10 reputation on this site.

Would you like to answer one of these unanswered questions instead?

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.