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Is there a difference between the universe and the cosmos? I used to think that the cosmos was a sort of container for the universe, one that could contain potentially infinite universes.

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In technical (astrophysics) usage no.

There are a number of different uses of universe but cosmos isn't used as a specific technical term. Cosmos is sometimes used in popular works as a homage to Carl Sagan's famous TV series.

Cosmological is used as a technical term, eg. Cosmological constant, Cosmological redshift - because using "Universal" would be confusing.

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Cosmos means "the universe seen as a well-ordered whole."
Universe means "all existing matter and space considered as a whole; the cosmos."

The words can be used as synonym of each other, or you can use cosmos when you are referring to the well-ordered aspect of the universe.

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Looking at the usages of "Cosmological" in Cosmological Argument and similar concepts shows that Cosmos lends itself toward a knowability (even if it is super-quantifiable) or even toward the French apprendre –  mfg Apr 12 '11 at 18:25

Universe means "the whole world" or "all taken collectively".

While Cosmos comes from the Greek Kosmos (from the OED: κόσµος - order, ornament, world or universe (so called by Pythagoras or his disciples ‘from its perfect order and arrangement’).

Cosmos is the opposite of Chaos, which was the first state of the universe.

Nowadays they are used like synonyms; they refer to the same thing, but seen from different "point of views".

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"...which was the first state of the universe" - well, we don't know this - it is just an extrapolation, done by a cosmic ("ordered") mind ;-) –  Gottfried Helms Apr 13 '11 at 10:30
    
Ok, it's a theory, but still it's called like that, right? Or even that is not sure? –  Alenanno Apr 13 '11 at 10:36

"Multiverse" is the "container" you are referring to.

I believe that the "Cosmos" refers to the astronomical aspect of the Universe (stars and etc), whereas the "Universe" refers to the entire reality.

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Yes, there is a difference.

Cosmos refers to the order found within the universe.

It is the opposite of Chaos, which refers to the disorder found within the Universe.

Carl Sagan is a tribute to the human race, here is one description he gave in the TV show Cosmos. "Cosmos is a Greek word for the order of the universe. It is, in a way, the opposite of Chaos. It implies the deep interconnectedness of all things. It conveys awe for the intricate and subtle way in which the universe is put together."

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Though both are used as synonyms, they embibe a different sense:

Universe is the totality of all the matter in the esistence along with the space, whereas cosmos include the interactive forces and some non-matter things which are abstract in nature.

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What is the source of your information? Always try to cite the references. Also, carefully check spellings and punctuation before hitting that 'Post Your Answer' button. –  Kris Oct 31 '13 at 13:57

The word universe should be interpreted as "our Universe", i.e. the universe we live in that originated with the Big Bang that occured about 13.7 billion years ago and is currently estimated to be commprised of between 100 and 400 billion galaxies. Our Universe is currently expanding and will continue to expand for many billion years; however, ultimately it will begin to contract and will contract for many additional billion years. Most of our Universe will be consumed in a Monster Black Hole that will develop near the center of our universe. The Monster Black Hole will at some point explode in another Big Bang that will be the end of our Universe and the birth of our successor universe. A relatively few galaxies will heading toward the Monster Black Hole at speeds much greater than the speed of light when the Big Bang occurs and these galaxies will provide the inflation perion of our successor universe. Our Universe is only a small part of the cosmos which is everthing that exists, has existed and will exist and includes previous universes, parallel universes and future universes.

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This post describes the theory known as Big Crunch, which disagrees with most observational evidence we have collected to date. However, it cannot be completely discredited because we do not fully understand the properties of dark energy. Please read this answer with a grain of salt. –  Nick2253 Nov 24 at 19:03

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