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Cardinal number

In linguistics, more precisely in traditional grammar, a cardinal number or cardinal numeral (or just cardinal) is a part of speech used to count, such as the English words one, two, three, but also compounds like three hundred and forty-two

cardinal (adj.)

"chief, pivotal," early 14c., from Latin cardinalis "principal, chief, essential," from cardo (genitive cardinis) "that on which something turns or depends; pole of the sky," originally "door hinge," of unknown origin.

What's the relation between the two?

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Have you looked up the etymologies? Where? What did you see? What is still puzzling you? Edit your question to reflect those answers and we'll be able to help you better. –  Matt Gutting Jul 15 at 15:48
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Answered here already (by Cerberus). –  Edwin Ashworth Jul 15 at 16:05

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up vote 4 down vote accepted

Cardinals are quite simply the primary, most ‘basic’ form of numerals.

Different languages have different categories of numbers (English has cardinals, numerals, and a few repetitionals or multiplicatives [once, twice]; Latin has these as well as distributives; Irish has animatives; etc.), but if a given language has numerals at all, it will almost certainly have at least cardinals.

The other types of numbers are given names for what they indicate apart from numeric values: ordinals indicate an ordering, etc.

Cardinals, being the primary type, indicates just the numeric value and nothing else.

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