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I'm looking for a term to describe when a medical advancement is achieved through, for example, a natural immunity to a disease. For example, the Berlin Patient, who is naturally immune to HIV may hold the cure to HIV.

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I know you are not specifically looking for a single word, but our information about single word requests might be help for you to revise your question so we can give you a better answer. Namely, I think we could use some more context and perhaps an example of how you want to use this terminology. – Kit Z. Fox Jul 14 '14 at 4:20
News flash : There is no such word. Consider the answers below. – vickyace Jul 14 '14 at 15:24

"A breakthrough" - an important discovery that is brought about after a long-time effort to understand or explain a scientific problem. Coronary Angioplasty was a major breakthrough in the treatment of Atherosclerotic Heart Disease.

The Rosetta Stone - (Archaeology) a basalt slab discovered in 1799 at Rosetta, dating to the reign of Ptolemy V (196 bc) and carved with parallel inscriptions in Egyptian hieroglyphics, demotic characters, and Greek, which provided the key to the decipherment of ancient Egyptian texts. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Rosetta+stone

Figuratively, "A rosetta stone" can be used for anything that gives you a clue into the understanding of a difficult (scientific or not)problem. (edited)

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I'm specifically looking for a term that describes when those immune to a disease, or medical outliers, hold the key to a disease or then lead to the breakthrough. – themerlinproject Jul 14 '14 at 2:47
There won't be a term for something that specific...there might a be a more general term that describes that within a certain context, but it will probably be a phrase. – Dave Magner Jul 14 '14 at 16:59
@themerlinproject About 1% of all people are naturally resistant to HIV. At the moment any scientist finds out the exact mechanism by which these people's lymphocytes won't allow HIV to replicate, it may turn out to be a Rosetta Stone for the Discovery of a cure. There must be a word which is more appropriate than a "RS", but this is all I can come up with. – Centaurus Jul 14 '14 at 23:31

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