English Language & Usage Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for linguists, etymologists, and serious English language enthusiasts. Join them; it only takes a minute:

Sign up
Here's how it works:
  1. Anybody can ask a question
  2. Anybody can answer
  3. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top

Can I drop the second having in this sentence? :

So, having looked through your posts and having read all the materials that you referred me to, I came to the conclusion...

share|improve this question
up vote 7 down vote accepted

Yes, of course you can drop the second "having":

So, having looked through your posts and read all the materials that you referred me to, I came to the conclusion...

is perfectly fine and, in fact, better than repeating the word. The first instance of "having" can do double duty for both phrases, and it's even what the ear expects.

share|improve this answer
Thank you. – brilliant Mar 25 '11 at 1:05
Umm - Robusto: there is no "of course" about it. You can indeed coordinate at either level, but to a non-native speaker this is not obvious, as your "of course" suggests. – Colin Fine Mar 25 '11 at 12:24
@Colin Fine: That's one way to interpret what I said. Another is read "of course" as "certainly" in that sentence. – Robusto Mar 25 '11 at 12:32
to me, "of course" always has an implication that it is obvious or already known, or that it should be so. Perhaps it doesn't to you. – Colin Fine Mar 30 '11 at 10:45

To me, repeating the word 'having' would be used to emphasize the fact that all the materials were read when the only thing expected by the listener was looking through the posts.

share|improve this answer
Or, the second 'having' could be used to emphasize that reading the materials is a different task than looking through the posts. Depending on the context, this may or may not be obvious. – Marthaª Mar 25 '11 at 20:59

Your Answer


By posting your answer, you agree to the privacy policy and terms of service.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.