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I’ve just come across “n.d.” used as an abbreviation, as a bibliographic reference in an academic essay, along the lines of:

Smith (n.d.) discusses the subaquaeous pliability of rattan fibres…

Is anyone familiar with this? Unfortunately it seems rather difficult to Google for (since it’s an abbreviation for many other things as well) and checking a couple of scholarly style guides, I haven’t found it mentioned…

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up vote 15 down vote accepted

It seems likely that it stands for "No Date". To be sure, check the bibliography.

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I've used n.d. in APA-style papers. It does mean "no date" for a citation. – Kelly Hess Mar 24 '11 at 20:05
Ah, thankyou! Yes, this looks to be exactly what the authors are using it for. – PLL Mar 24 '11 at 20:23

it is mentioned when there is no date or year is given. thats specially in the case of article having no print version and is available on internet only. so the yesr would not be there and you mention it like (n.d)

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I believe it means "no date" because it may be uncertain of the date of when the author contributed to a particular topic/field of his/her expertise.

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Your experience of the use of this term would be more helpful if you would give an example or cite a reference. – Theresa Oct 2 '14 at 17:57

protected by tchrist Feb 26 '15 at 2:08

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