In my experience in the US, this is typically called a handout, or it is referred to informally in class by the name(s) of the author(s) or a short title. Yes, that means that "handout" can be anything from a single, informal sheet passed out occasionally to a bound book (which is typically not available through other channels, etc., it might be written by the prof and be otherwise unpublished).
Sometimes such material is referred to as lecture notes, as well. And there is probably a certain amount of variability wrt geography, course level, etc.
I would suggest trying to find out what term is used by the target use case: if you are preparing something for a course presented in English, ask those involved with teaching it or designing the curriculum, etc.
IMO, the binding used, if any, is of less importance than the content. No one really cares much whether something is tape-bound, spiral-bound, or whatever.