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John found it surprising that Wayne played the tuba.

That Wayne played the tuba is the clause, but what kind is it? I am completely stuck on this and can't figure it out.

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Things have been done to this sentence.

There are actually three clauses here, with 3 predicates: find, (be) surprising, and play.
Find takes an infinitive object complement, and (be) surprising takes a tensed subject that-clause.

John found [[that Wayne played the tuba] to be surprising]
==> Extraposition
John found [it to be surprising [that Wayne played the tuba]]
==> to be-Deletion
John found it surprising [that Wayne played the tuba].

That Wayne played the tuba is the subject complement clause of to be surprising.
The dummy subject it gets inserted by Extraposition, and then to be-Deletion does the rest.

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I believe it is a dependent adverbial clause..

That Wayne played the tuba modifies found it surprising.

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