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The only objects which can constitute [the space-time framework essential to interpersonal communication] are those which confer upon it their own fundamental characteristics.

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The construction X confers Y upon Z means that X causes object or person Z to have attribute Y.

So your example sentence means that objects cause "the space-time framework essential to interpersonal communication" to share in "their own fundamental characteristics".

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"To exchange one's opinion, thoughts, views etc." or "to give or grant a thought of yours to others".

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Confer means "to grant or bestow a title, degree, benefit, or right"; upon is a preposition that has the same meaning of on, but it is more formal.

Moves were made to confer an honorary degree on her.

You can also use it to mean "to give a characteristic, feature, or quality".

[Reference: the New Oxford American Dictionary, third edition.]

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