The examples given work better with "without" than "deprived".
Without his partner, he couldn't win
on his effort alone.
Life would be miserable without you.
He would never be able to speak
without this technology.
(Note: for the 3rd example, it is the technology [perhaps a voice prosthesis after a laryngectomy?] that allows the person to speak, not the act of discovery of the technology)
"Deprive" means to take something away from. Also, it is commonly used to refer to the removal of a basic or essential need. Hence, it is often used in the following context:
Deprived of sleep, he was unable to
perform well at work.
The dictator imposed unreasonable
restrictions on his political
opponents, and deprived them of the right
of free speech as well.
Deprived of food, the child was unable
to reach his full growth potential.
"Without" is usually more generic in its usage, it may not always refer to the removal of a basic/ essential need:
Without the fitness he once had, he
was unable to complete the marathon.
He got wet because he was caught in
the rain without an umbrella.