In some regions of the U.S., can the term "coat" be used to designate what other native speakers of other U.S. regions -- and from farther out -- would call a jacket?
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A coat is longer than a jacket - the jacket doesn't cover the hips and the coat does, or goes even farther to almost the knees.
Usually the insulation goes up to match, but not always. When I lived in Chicago my winter coat was just a lined thick wool coat that went almost to the knees. By keeping the wind off the legs it was warmer than a down parka that left the legs exposed.
In my area (Wisconsin), a coat is a heavier outer garment ("winter coat") and a jacket is lighter ("spring jacket").
Of course, here in the northern part of the country we have very cold winters, and we need different words to describe these things. For example: "Is it warm enough for a jacket, or do I need to bring a coat?"
NG, I don't think it's due to 'dialect'. In Ame, coat usually refers to a longer outergarment whereas jacket usually refers to a shorter one.
Any jacket can be considered a coat (an outer piece of clothing that can be long or short and that is worn to keep warm or dry) but not every coat can be considered a jacket (a garment for the upper body usually having a front opening, collar, lapels, sleeves, and pockets) which has a much more restrictive definition, and can refer not only to short outerwear, but the upper garment in a suit, or anything like it.