Take the 2-minute tour ×
English Language & Usage Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for linguists, etymologists, and serious English language enthusiasts. It's 100% free, no registration required.

In French the word *paysan (fem. paysanne) translates to English as 'farmer', as well as 'peasant'. (Collins).

It is by no means demeaning in many European countries (including France) to refer to someone as a paysan. It means a type of country person, but not necessarily one of low social status. Many landowners are described thus.

According to the OED almost all the meanings of peasant are demeaning, indeed they take the trouble to point out that it is a word which has effectively ceased to refer anyone in Britain, and is generally applied to agricultural communities in poor countries. Peasant is nowadays mostly used in Britain as a term of abuse. Not even agricultural labourers are referred to as 'peasants'.

Was there ever a wealthy peasant class in Britain, and in her original dominions such as America, Australia etc, and if so where has it gone?

share|improve this question
    
Probably due to its use in medieval periods where the feudal system was in force, and the bottom rung were known as peasants. They effectively did work as farmers, but in england this coincided with the lowest class of the society –  FireGarden Feb 14 at 17:04
    
A peasant is not a free man, he is bound to the land and is one step above a slave. It isn't surprising that this might raise hackles. –  Oldcat Feb 14 at 19:02
    
I've never heard the English word "peasant" refer to anyone who owns land. Possibly paysan and "peasant" share the same etymological origin, but from your description it does not sound like they're equivalent terms. –  Kyle Strand Feb 14 at 21:19
add comment

2 Answers

That wealthy class would certainly not see themselves as peasants. They were the owners of land, and one of the ways to turn land into money was to have people work it. The ones that did that work were the peasants.

There has never been a wealthy peasant class, because a peasant was by definition a person who worked a small piece of land, which often did not belong to him, and he had to pay taxes over the produce. Successful peasant might end up with a bit more land and the ability to hire hands, but they would still belong to the lowest class.

Only after the demise of the feudal system did farming become eventually a real enterprise, where the farmer owns his own land and can run a sizeable farm as a business.

This is not unique to Britain but true for most of (Western) Europe, where the feudal system was in place throughout the Middle Ages.

As for French, although I have heard paysan used in a pejorative sense, it's not as strong as "peasant"in English. Why that is - maybe because of the quite harsh reset of social values after the French Revolution?

The Dutch "boer", though the normal way to refer to a farmer, certainly also has negative connotations, and when applied to someone who is not a farmer, carries the message that that person is uncivilized, uneducated and rude. It is also commonly attached to other nouns to indicate negativity, although strangely enough it's also used to indicate "old fashioned, artisanal quality".

So it is not just in English the word has negative connotations :) (And I realized why nobody will ever understand the Dutch or their language :P )

share|improve this answer
    
German "Bauer" (farmer) can also be used in a pejorative sense. –  Sebastian Negraszus Feb 14 at 21:42
add comment

In French the word *paysan (fem. paysanne) translates to English as 'farmer', as well as 'peasant'. (Collins).

One certainly wouldn't call a gentleman farmer who owned a large estate a paysan, whether in French or as that word has been re-borrowed into English.

When peasant came into English with the Normans, it denoted a rank, as well as a rural rather than urban life.

Just how derogatory that is depends on your politics—the peasant might be the only person you hold as having value, compared to the greedy bourgeois and the decadent aristocrats!—and your romantic inclinations—the peasant has been the focus of many a pastoral fantasy on the part of the non-peasant classes, from Walter Raleigh's "Shepherd" poems, through Marie Antoinette's silk dairymaid costume through to various back-to-nature movements.

But still, the peasant is certainly "lowly" in both the English and French use, and the rest follows from how one reacts to that lowly station. That the English haven't had a good beheading of the upper classes by the lower classes since 1649, while the French not only picked up the habit a good hundred years later, but also stuck with their republic for longer than the ten years the English managed (albeit with some setbacks along the way) would have some effect.

share|improve this answer
1  
+1 Also, we (meaning both Brits and Yanks) have a useful native term for the prosperous agriculturist. Peasant refers to the degraded inhabitants of unhappy nations which lack Roast Beef, Brown Ale, and The (not merely A) Bill of Rights; our tongue celebrates the Yeoman. –  StoneyB Feb 14 at 17:41
    
@StoneyB I think we Yanks would more often recognize the Gentleman Farmer. –  bib Feb 14 at 17:55
    
@bib I may be showing my age and ethnos. My father was a student of Donald Davidson's, and the Fugitives/Southern Agrarians were fond of yeoman for the agricultural class. Gentleman Farmer would probably for them have suggested something quite different: the remnant of the old Planter class. –  StoneyB Feb 14 at 18:00
    
@bib, They're like Big Agriculture, but not actually anywhere near as big, with a stronger fondness for tweed, and a working definition of "old money" of, "before you were throwing your tea into the sea". –  Jon Hanna Feb 14 at 18:01
    
I think it was your tea they were throwing into the sea; but, yeah, Gentleman Farmer to me means the gentry, the squirearchy. –  StoneyB Feb 14 at 18:04
show 20 more comments

Your Answer

 
discard

By posting your answer, you agree to the privacy policy and terms of service.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.