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It would be much appreciated if you could identify any differences regarding whether using the definite article or not in the two citations below brings about any changes in meaning.

What is being considered questionable is the phrase: "globalization of markets."

Ex 1: "As used in this book, globalization refers to the shift toward a more integrated and interdependent world economy. Globalization has several facets, including the globalization of markets and the globalization of production."

Ex 2: "The lowering of trade barriers made globalization of markets and production a theoretical possibility. ... Despite all the talk about the emerging global village, and despite the trend toward globalization of markets and production, as we shall see in this book, many of these differences are very profound and enduring."

What would be the differences between the two of them?

  • I have another example: "The primary duty of an evolutionary biologist is to study the trends of evolution of animals, plants, human beings, reptiles, or any other form of life as specified in the particular task or project that has been assigned to him."

Why, in the example above, didn't the writer use the definite article?

Thank you for any help you can provide!

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Please clarify your second question: where do you think the article was erroneously omitted? – medica Jan 16 '14 at 15:14
The second question - Why, in the example above, didn't the writer use the definite article? - is asking about the "of evolution of animals, plants, human beings, reptiles." part. – J. Lee Jan 16 '14 at 15:19
The difference? one of them has a "the". They mean the same thing. You can leave "the" out, or put it in. It's grammatical both ways. – Peter Shor Jan 16 '14 at 15:29
Got it! Thank you for your feedback! – J. Lee Jan 16 '14 at 15:41
up vote 1 down vote accepted

...including the globalization of markets and the globalization of production.

...toward globalization of markets and production, as...

A definite article is not always necessary before a noun or an adjective + noun, and its absence is especially notable in more specialized or academic writing. The first statement could just as easily have been written as

...including market globalization and globalization of production.

Your second question is an example of the above. The article is unnecessary in these contexts. If you google "of evolution of", you will get many examples in sentences, such as the following:

This timeline of evolution of life represents current scientific theory...

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