Is a dependent clause considered a fragment? Are all fragments considered to be a dependent clause? Or is fragment like an umbrella where dependent clauses and phrases can be found? Thanks for any and all help.
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"Fragment" has no technical meaning.
Consequently, there is no ISO Standard definition for a "fragment",
My advice is to ignore "fragments", and concentrate on learning to recognize clauses.
If anyone tells you that something is a "fragment",
Take notes. Be sure to ask for rule citations at every step, so you can look them up. Be very polite.
A fragment is an incomplete clause. Fragments occur often in dialogue because the elided bits are fresh in the memory. Some dependent clauses look like fragments because they have elided words, but they are real clauses and don't depend on previous sentences (except as the sources of anaphors).