I have found some more words related to Ancient Greece along with their background stories:
draconian: characterized by very strict laws, rules and punishments
Draco was an ancient Athenian ruler who believed that the city-state's haphazard judicial system needed to be reformed. In 621 B.C.E., he issued a comprehensive but very severe new code of laws. Whether trivial or serious, most criminal offenses called for the death penalty. Draco's laws were so severe that they were said to be written not in ink but in blood.
laconic: very brief; concise; succinct; terse
The ancient city-state of Sparta was located in a region of Greece called Laconia. The Spartans were fearless warriors who had little time for long speeches. As a result, they were renowned for being laconic or very concise. For example, Philip of Macedon, father of Alexander the Great, sent the Spartans a long list of demands. The laconic Spartans sent it back with a one word answer: "No!"
spartan: plain; simple; austere
The Spartans were more than just laconic. They also prided themselves on being tough warriors who avoided luxuries and led hardy lives. For example, Spartan soldiers lived in army barracks and ate meager servings of a coarse black porridge.
halcyon: idyllically calm and peaceful; an untroubled golden time of happiness and tranquility
In Greek mythology, Alcyone was the daughter of Aeolus, god of the winds, and the devoted wife of Ceyx. When Ceyx tragically drowned in a shipwreck, the distraught Alcyone threw herself into the sea. Out of compassion, the gods transformed Alcyone and Ceyx into a pair of kingfishers. The ancient Greeks named this distinctive bird halkyon after Alcyone. According to legend, kingfishers built a floating nest on the sea at about the time of the winter solstice in December. To protect their nest, the gods ordered the winds to remain calm for a week before and after the winter solstice. The expression "halcyon days" refers to this period of untroubled peace and tranquility.
sophistry: a plausible but deliberately misleading or fallacious argument designed to deceive someone
The Sophists were originally a respected group of ancient Greek philosophers who specialized in teaching rhetoric. However, over time they gained a reputation for their ability to persuade by using clever and often misleading arguments. Today, sophistry is a negative word that refers to a plausible but deliberately misleading argument.
chimerical: given to fantastic schemes; existing only as a product of an unchecked imagination
The Chimera was one of the most fearsome monsters in Greek mythology. A fire-breathing female, it had the head and body of a lion, a serpent's tail, and a goat's head protruding from its midsection. This frightening combination was unusually fantastic even for the ancient Greeks. The creature's element of unchecked imagination survives in the word chimerical.
ostracized: to deliberately exclude from a group
In ancient Athens, an ostrakon was a broken fragment or shard from an earthen vessel. The Athenians used these pot shards as ballots in an annual vote to decide who, if anyone should be banished from their city. Each voter wrote a name on his ostrakon. If at least 6,000 votes were cast and if a majority of them named one man, then that man was banished or ostracized and had to leave Athens for a year.
taken from the book SAT I Direct Hits I - Core Vocabulary of SAT