I remember at one point knowing a word that meant "overly proud of your own heritage or culture", and basically being racist or at least biased toward your own heritage/culture. Anyone know some words that fit this description?
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For terms that see this in terms of a nation:
See also fascist.
for terms that focus on the racial aspect, I might say "ethnocentric" or "tribal thinking."
A good pejorative adjective for expressing this sort of biased thinking is "jaundiced"
I think you mean "chauvinistic."
The American Heritage Dictionary defines the term as a "[p]rejudiced belief in the superiority of one's own gender, group, or kind: 'the chauvinism . . . of making extraterrestrial life in our own image" (Henry S.F. Cooper, Jr.)'"
The same dictionary explains the word's etymology:
"[French chauvinisme, after Nicolas Chauvin, a legendary French soldier famous for his devotion to Napoleon.]"
They could be Nationalist. Nationalists come in many types: national nationalism, ethnic nationalism, etc. In some cases, races, cultures, etc. can be considered nations.
+1 to everything above. I prefer strong language in such cases. You may also find "xenophobe" to be an appropriate pejorative:
If you don't mind exaggeration, you could probably swing "solipsism" as a mighty smack:
All definitions are found on Merriam Webster: