I've never studied English grammar, although I have studied a little German and Latin. If you asked me to differentiate the past perfect from the pluperfect, I wouldn't know where to begin. I read questioners using terms like "verb base + ing" and I ask myself whether he means a gerund or a present participle and I wonder why anyone would use such a phrase. What is the accepted nomenclature for English grammar and can someone suggest a printed-on-paper source? Thank you.
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Unhappily, there is no one "accepted nomenclature" right now. The language for talking about English grammar has been evolving very rapidly for two generations as scholars find it necessary to invent new terms to denote new perceptions which cannot be adequately expressed in the old manner, by twisting Greek and Latin categories to fit an alien tongue. Half the terms I was taught in the 1950s have been abandoned, and the other half mean something different. Not always the same different, neither: different grammarians will use the same term in different ways. The great advance we have made is that today's grammarians will tell you, at great length and with quasi-mathematical precision, exactly what they mean and how it differs from what everybody else means—a much sounder practice than that of the old scholars, who blithely assumed that everybody who mattered knew what they meant because they'd attended the same schools and learned the same (Latin) grammar.
As to the specific terms you name: