I'd like to know whether there is a single word for "remote, distant places" in no allegorical sense, but with a positive undertone.
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If you would not consider rural areas to have negative connotations (and faraway places are unlikely to be urban cosmopolitan), then the Australian words wayback and outback are applicable.
Another word is outlands
The antipodes are literally on the other side of the earth, so you could use the word to refer to remote, distant places.
The Antipodes are often used humorously to refer to Australia and New Zealand (being, as they were, on the far side of the earth from England), so antipodes has a positive connotation (unlike hinterlands, another word I was considering suggesting, which some dictionaries define as "a place far away from busy or interesting places" -- which gives it a faintly negative connotation.)
The term horizon can mean
It also is used to describe the far distant point at which land and sky meet. There are numerous phrases, such as distant horizon and far horizon that convey a remote location. It also tends to have a slightly positive connotation.