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I would call them "Frenchisms" or some such -ism, but I figured I'd at least ask first. So is there a name for such adopted foreign phrases? Also, how about those adopted from languages other than French? Same deal?

I know neologisms are new terms or phrases that have yet to be made official, but that's not so relevant here, since these adopted phrases aren't exactly new.

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You're probably talking about half the dictionary! – user774 Feb 22 '11 at 12:18
@IainMH: you're not that far off. – RegDwigнt Feb 22 '11 at 12:21
How many of those words have been slightly altered though? Probably most of them. I was thinking more about words that are clearly foreign in nature, and unaltered (as the examples above that I had posted). I hear what you're saying though! :) – purefusion Feb 22 '11 at 12:36
hors d'oeuvres was altered, if only because it apparently lost its signature œ – F'x Feb 22 '11 at 12:42
bon appétit is another one. – Włodzimierz Holsztyński Oct 23 '14 at 5:18
up vote 13 down vote accepted

The term is loan words; I am not aware of any language-specific term other than Latinate words. Loan is a bit of a misnomer, though, for words that have become part of the English lexicon -- we're never giving them back.

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Heh, gotta love permanent borrowing. – purefusion Feb 22 '11 at 12:34
loanword (without hyphen) is also acceptable, and even seems to be the prefered spelling these days – F'x Feb 22 '11 at 12:37

If there are circumstances in which you want an alternative to French loan word, I suggest gallicism.

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I'd agree with @bye's assertion of 'loan words'. Many are of French origin, but quite a few are borrowed from languages from the Indian subcontinent and reflect the period British Rule.

These include: Shampoo, Pyjama, jodhpurs, Calico, Doolally and many, many others. -

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