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Consider these examples:

  • Since the board realized that the figures are increasing, they have been searching for a new campaign.
  • Once the board realized that the figures are increasing, they began searching for a new campaign.

Can they be rewritten as "since realizing" and "once realizing"?

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3 Answers 3

They can, but in any case are should be were, because the ‘that’ clause is a reporting clause.

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The conjunction once has only one meaning (approximating to when or as soon as) and needs to be followed by the subject of the dependent clause it introduces. You cannot reduce the clause to:

?Once realizing that the figures are increasing, the board ... .

The temporal conjunction since, with the sense of starting at a point in time (and continuing), can be reduced in this way:

Since realizing that the figures are increasing, the board ... .

However, if the conjunction since has its other sense (approximating to as or because), it cannot be reduced. Example:

Since you speak Russian, you may be able to understand this letter.

*Since speaking Russian, you may be able to understand this letter.

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It can shift the places as:

Once realizing the increase in figures, they began searching for a new campaign. and same for the other..:)

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1  
I don't think realizing can have a direct object in this way. –  Barrie England Oct 21 '13 at 6:14
    
Yes – though the standard dictionary definition of the intended sense doesn't inform the reader of this restriction on what the DO can be: realize - be fully aware or cognizant of (WordNet 3.0). realize the importance of the increase in numbers but not (in this sense) realize the increase in numbers notice the increase in numbers works. –  Edwin Ashworth Oct 21 '13 at 9:16

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