There are words (not paired normally) which are, say, close relatives with (sometimes) totally different lives. For example, praeternatural = (Lat. praeter [beyond] + natura [nature]) and metaphysical = (Gr. meta [beyond] + phusis [nature]).
The both have different meanings, at the same time they are calques of each other.
Do you know of any other such pairs?
P. S.: It is interesting that in Russian one of such pairs has just been created within my generation: the word прейскурант (from German Preiskurant) had to make room in usage for the more recently introduced прайс-лист (from English price list).
By myself: Praeternatural (Lat. praeter [beyond] + natura [nature]) / Metaphysical (Gr. meta [beyond] + phusis [nature]).
By Colin Fine: Adrenaline (Lat. ad [to, near] + renal [of the kidneys]) / Epinephrine (Gr. epi [near] + nephros [kidneys]).
By Janus Bahs Jacquet:
- Aqua vitae (Lat.) / Whisk(e)y (abbr. whiskebae/usquebaugh < Irish uisce beatha/ Scottish uisge beatha). Water of life.
- Vladimir (Slavic vladi- [rule] + mir [world]) / Henry (Germanic heim(i)- [home, world] + rīkaz [rule]). Ruler of the world.
By choster: Sarcophagus (from Greek) / Carnivore (from Latin). Both stem from words meaning flesh-eating.
By Fred2: Overman (over + man) / Superman (Lat. super [over] + man). Coined to translate German Übermensch.
Putsch (Swiss German blow) / Coup (Old French blow), former meaning 'riot, revolt', the latter any sudden, decisive political act (popularly restricted to the overthrow of a government).
Chirography (Gr., chiros (hand) + graphe (which is written)) / **Manuscript (Latin, manus (hand) + scriptus (which is written).