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When testing performance or the output of different combinations of elements against one another - is it correct to say it's a "multivariant" test? Or is it a "multivariate" test?

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Have you checked the available resources? What have you found? – Kris Sep 11 '13 at 7:31
To make it even more complex, there is also "multivariable" analysis. See the article Multivariate or Multivariable Regression? from Bertha Hidalgo, PhD, MPHcorresponding author and Melody Goodman, PhD, MS – Dirk Horsten Jan 15 at 10:42

This is really a technical question rather than an English question, but the answer is it's 'Multivariate": "involving a number of distinct, though not usually independent, random variables"

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Independence isn't relevant to whether statistics are multivariate; moreover, independent may be used two ways here, referring to dependent and independent variables of a research design, vs statistically independent, ie uncorrelated, random variables. – jwpat7 Sep 10 '13 at 22:53

I've only heard of "multivariate analysis" in statistics. When I try to search for "define multivariant," Bing corrects the word and says it's "Including results for define multivariate."

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In Calculus and Statistics Multivariate generally means the use of several variables. Multivariant, from the definitions I found, is directed towards degrees of freedom. As variables tend to represent degrees of freedom, I would hazard a guess they are somewhat interchangeable. The Ngram below does show that "Multivariant" is really not used much, so I would probably stick with "multivariate".

enter image description here

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