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Basically, sardonic and sarcastic both stand for mocking gestures, but what is the difference in their contextual use?

Are there any other words that represent a similar gesture?

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Please don't add separate questions as edits to original questions. Ask them as separate questions, if you deem them worthy of answers, since people will otherwise likely not see them. –  Robusto Feb 14 '11 at 13:01
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Sarcasm and the sardonic are best experienced, watch some British comedy, Blackadder or Fawlty Towers probably are the best candidates for exposure. –  Orbling Feb 14 '11 at 13:15
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4 Answers

up vote 4 down vote accepted

@Manoochehr doesn't quite catch the meaning of sardonic. It means "grimly mocking or cynical." My Webster's gives its origin as

mid 17th cent.: from French sardonique, earlier sardonien, via Latin from Greek sardonios ‘of Sardinia,’ alteration of sardanios, used by Homer to describe bitter or scornful laughter.

It really doesn't carry the connotation of superiority or low opinion all by itself, although such feelings may accompany it.

Sardonic is in fact distinct from sarcastic but not by much, and many people use the two as if they are interchangeable, which, strictly speaking, they are not. Sardonic is more extreme and negative, and one can be sarcastic without being sardonic, and vice-versa.

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Can you cite an example that can be rendered as a sarcastic comment but not as sardonic? –  ikartik90 Feb 14 '11 at 10:12
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@ikartik90: "Having dropped an entire tray of dishes, Will sardonically announced, 'Well, it's just not my day, is it?'" Note that the statement itself is not sardonic by itself; it is the tone that would accompany it that would be sardonic. Will might have made a sarcastic statement instead: "Having dropped an entire tray of dishes, Will sarcastically announced, 'I'm really in top form today." –  Robusto Feb 14 '11 at 10:22
    
So can I say that sardonic is rather characterized by an expression, than a statement? –  ikartik90 Feb 14 '11 at 10:29
    
@ikartik90: Well, expression is a synonym for statement. I would say that sardonic is more characterized by tone and context. –  Robusto Feb 14 '11 at 10:36
    
From the above example I very well understood the meaning of Sarcastic but seems like the meaning of Sardonic doesn't want to get into my brains. :/ –  ikartik90 Feb 14 '11 at 10:53
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According to Longman Dictionary of contemporary English:

  • Sardonic: showing that you do not have a good opinion of someone or something, and feel that you are better than them

He looked at her with sardonic amusement.

  • Sarcastic: saying things that are the opposite of what you mean, in order to make an unkind joke or to show that you are annoyed

Was she being sarcastic?

sarcastic remark/comment/question

He can’t help making sarcastic comments.

sarcastic manner/smile/laugh etc

‘I thought so,’ she said with a sarcastic smile.

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The definition of the words I can read on the NOAD are:

  • Sarcastic: marked by or given to using irony in order to mock or convey contempt.
  • Sardonic: grimly mocking or cynical.

She wrote sarcastic comments on their failures.
She's witty and sarcastic.
Starkey attempted a sardonic smile.

The differences between the words are:

  • sardonic doesn't implicate the use of irony;
  • sarcastic is not used referring something/somebody cynical;
  • sarcastic doesn't implicate a grim (sad or relentless) tone.

The NOAD, in a note titled The right word, reports also:

Irony is the implicit humor in the contradiction between what is meant and what is expressed, or in the discrepancy between appearance and reality. An example would be to shout, in the midst of a hurricane, What a perfect day for a wedding!
Although sarcasm may take the form of irony, it is less subtle and is often used harshly or bitterly to wound or ridicule someone. Unlike irony, however, sarcasm depends on tone of voice for its effect ("a fine friend you turned out to be!", he said, with obvious sarcasm).

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That's fine and good to an extent. But it still is incapable of bringing out the boundary that divides the words. –  ikartik90 Feb 14 '11 at 10:24
    
I extended the answer to make more evident what the difference between the two words is. –  kiamlaluno Feb 14 '11 at 11:34
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To answer the currently unanswered half of the question:

Criticism, if done correctly, is different to sardonism or sarcasm in that they are a mode of voice, while criticism should be a balanced review of a subject. Unfortunately, bad criticism generally comes over as sardonic and sarcastic - so, you can see the confusion.

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protected by RegDwigнt Nov 25 '12 at 1:58

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