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I'm looking for a unambiguous word (or else expression) for referring to a question and a corresponding answer as a single entity.

The word should express that no more and no less than 1 question and 1 answer is covered, and that they correspond each other.

The terms "request, response" may be technical jargon but I'm looking for a general word (it may be technical but may be not).

(In case this should be obvious, please merge this to ELL, I'm not native.)

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Do you mean in the sense of data? If so there are some answers here: stackoverflow.com/questions/1039513/… – dcaswell Sep 4 '13 at 13:49
We need NameMyVariable.stackexchange.com – JeffSahol Sep 4 '13 at 13:51
This question appears to be off-topic because it is about "Naming, including naming programming variables/classes". This is confirmed by OP's tag & comment. – TrevorD Sep 4 '13 at 14:27
In ling biz, this is called Turn-taking, and Harvey Sacks provided a fine-grained analysis of how and why it works the way it does. – John Lawler Sep 4 '13 at 14:48
I ended up calling a Request-Response Handler "ConnectionHandler" the other day, so "Connection"? – James Webster Sep 5 '13 at 8:41

Exchange or interchange might work in the absence of better words.

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Exchange is good but does not imply a question, consider this exchange: - Hi. - Hi yourself. Neither of these implies a short interchange though, both could describe conversations that lasted for hours. – terdon Sep 4 '13 at 14:00
Inquisitive Exchange? – Somesh Mukherjee Sep 4 '13 at 16:04

Well, how about Q&A?

Q and A
noun Informal.
an exchange of questions and answers.

Also, Q&A.

If you are looking for variable names, you could always write QnA or QA or QandA or something.

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The compound word (or phrase if you omit the hyphens) call-and-response may suit

a statement quickly followed by an answering statement; also : a musical phrase in which the first and often solo part is answered by a second and often ensemble part

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Just call it a Transaction if you're not working with databases otherwise it can get confusing. I can also suggest Discourse but it may be a little far fetched.

I also want to add handshake as in a WebSocket Protocol Handshake

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You can use the word "Event" for referring to the entity... And this entity involves (or consists of) one Query and one Answer (Q&A).

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