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For example, words like "left", "right", "close to", "above", "across from" etc. I've found on a lot of websites they're called "directional words" but I was wondering if there was a more technical term. I'm thinking of it as a subset of prepositions, words that only indicate some kind of relative position.

EDIT: I think one possible term is spatial adposition.

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Most prepositions have some sort of spatial sense, but it's often metaphorized until all one can find is a figurative and often idiomatic sense. To be clear: there are no English prepositions that can ony indicate spatial position. There are a few English words that can only indicate time (when, then, during, endure, duration), but none for space. Space is a metaphor most of the time. –  John Lawler Sep 3 '13 at 2:28
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And probably you ought to read the Deixis Lectures, especially the first two. –  John Lawler Sep 3 '13 at 2:30

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up vote 3 down vote accepted

Perhaps orientation

the position of something in relation to its surroundings: The church has an east-west orientation (has one main side facing east and the opposite side facing west).

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