What does treat 'em and street 'em mean?
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As Hellion already mentioned, it's about medical treatment.
I believe it's used primarily in the U.S. where you're not covered by a national (or otherwise common) health insurance. If you lack medical insurance, the hospital is only required (by law) to treat the critical condition, and may then release you.
I believe it means "give them (medical) treatment and then get them out of the facility [and back on the street]."