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Psycholinguistically, a lemma is an abstract conceptual form of a word. However from a lexicographic perspective, the lemma is merely the aorist or canonical form of a word.

In English, the lemma of a verb is the 3rd person singular form; for a noun, it's the singular form.

However for multi-word expression, we might need to use the plural form of a noun within the expression, e.g. "kick_one's_heels". Even if we don't consider multi-word expression to constitute a lemma, we have other inconsistencies of the criteria to give lemma status to a word, e.g. hooved(adj) vs hoofed(adj).

What is a notion of lemma? How is it scientifically defined? Citations will be much appreciated.

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closed as off-topic by KitFox Jul 29 '13 at 18:20

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linguistics.stackexchange.com –  Kris Jul 29 '13 at 7:07
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This question appears to be off-topic because it is about linguistics –  TimLymington Jul 29 '13 at 8:42

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