Is there a term for words that are spelled identically in a foreign language and have the same meaning (regardless of whether they sound the same)?
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The closest I believe is "cognate" (from Merriam-Webster Online
However, translators must beware of cognates, because the meaning and usage often varies in subtle ways between languages. For instance, "mist" in German" is what farmers put on the field at night, causing a steam (ie a 'mist') to appear above the field the next morning that obscures sight.
In the above wikipedia article are a list of French words which have retained their original meaning and spelling. As far as I could tell, a single word or expression meaning unmodified foreign words (my definition) which have been adopted into the English language, does not exist.
A similar list exists for Italian words and phrases, again these words retain their "ethnical" spelling and meaning however, their pronunciation may differ from that of Italian.
On a side note, Loanwords or its equivalent expression lexical borrowing, expresses the concept of foreign words which were adopted and manipulated in the past and today appear and sound native-like. For example the English adjective, handy, was loaned to the German language but means mobile phone consequently "Handy" is a German noun.
In The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language, (Edition 2010) David Crystal. The author states on p302
on p340, Crystal talks about language changes; sound, grammatical, and semantic. Under the heading of New words and old he makes the following remarks:
In nowhere (could I find) does the esteemed author, David Crystal, mention a linguistic word, phrase or term which means native and foreign words having the same meaning and spelling.
"Homograph" (almost, sorta) means what you want - two words that are spelled the same. As a comment points out, you should be careful of words that look the same but have different meanings - what another comment calls "false friends". "Homograph" does not specifically denote words from different languages, although that may be a finer distinction than you're inclined to make.
Related (but not what you are seeking): "Homonym" is a more commonly used word which, I think, also indicates that the words are pronounced the same. To round it out, "Homophone" would be 'sound-alike'.
More detail in the question would be nice, but I think (from a comment) might also end with "this is a discussion for Programmers.SE or its chat room".