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I would like to know if it is grammatically correct to ask the question, "Is it today that you are going to town?" My concern is specifically the "Is it" part.

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It's perfectly grammatical. It's a typical cleft sentence.

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Or more technically, a yes/no question formed from an it-cleft sentence. – John Lawler Jul 23 '13 at 0:07
@JohnLawler A dichotomous interrogatory it-cleft sentence? – bib Jul 23 '13 at 1:27
All clefts are dichotomous; they split a sentence like You are going to town today into two parts, which balance on each side of the fulcrum of cleavage, which is usually some form of be. – John Lawler Jul 23 '13 at 4:16

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