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E.g. Charles the Great, Charles the Rash, Edward the Confessor, etc.

I'm reasonably sure there was a word for this .... * scratches head *

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Charles the Rash probably had to scratch a lot also. – MετάEd Jul 12 '13 at 4:29
up vote 6 down vote accepted

It was (and still is! :) an epithet...

any word or phrase applied to a person or thing to describe an actual or attributed quality
“Richard the Lion-Hearted” is an epithet of Richard I.

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thank you very much :) – Eiyrioü von Kauyf Jul 3 '13 at 12:53

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