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I found two intriguing idioms in a pair in the following sentence of Jeffery Archer’s “The Forth Estate” (page 592) that I came to the last part at length. A media mogul, Dick Armstrong (seemingly modeling Donald Trump) is approached by Earl Withers, the lawyers of Chicago based newspaper that is on the brink of financial crisis for a salvaging acquisition:

“And is it true that it’s in debt for $200 million?” said Armstrong.

“$207 million, to be precise,” said Withers.

“And losing over a million a week?” “Around one million three hundred thousand.” “And the unions have got you by the balls.”

In Chicago, Mr. Armstrong, we would describe it as "over a barrel". But that is precisely why my clients felt we should approach you - - -.”

I’m curious to know why the Chicago lawyer deliberately rephrased Armstrong’s “got by the balls” remark with the phrase, “over a barrel.”

Are “Have got sb by the balls” and “Sb being over a barrel” exact synonyms that are interchangeable as Withers rephrased? To me, they seem to have different shades of meaning and occasions of use aside from decency of the wording.

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@Carlo_R. I think it's an abbreviation for "somebody". –  TrevorD Jun 30 '13 at 21:50
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Collins lists both idioms, and describes them both as powerless. Of the two, I'd consider over a barrel to be less vulgar, as by the balls refers to testicles. However, I'm not sure if the Chicago lawyer is simply encouraging Mr. Armstrong to be less uncouth with his language, or if there's some other reason behind the admonishment. –  J.R. Jun 30 '13 at 22:36
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An allied expression, as Wentworth & Flexnor, Dictionary of American Slang (1960) point out, is "to have someone by the short hairs"—the hairs in question being not more than a few inches north of the balls in the Armstrong quotation. –  Sven Yargs Jul 1 '13 at 3:40
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There are no exact synonyms. There is always at least the slightest difference of meaning. Here the difference is stronger based on vulgarity as @J.R. explains. –  Mitch Jul 1 '13 at 3:47
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They mean the same thing although the balls version is vulgar and would not be used in polite company. Yet another (British) version is to have someone "by the short and curlies". –  user24964 Jul 1 '13 at 9:43
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You are correct in that the lawyer is using a higher register, while the mogul is using a lower register. The author may be using the difference in register (“decency in wording,” as you put it) to highlight the difference between the characters.

The Free Dictionary defines over a barrel as

Fig. out of one's control; in a dilemma.

It defines have by the balls as

Extremely informal. to have someone in a situation where you have complete power over them

The two phrases have in common that one party is in an awkward position and may be forced to act in a way contrary to his best interest. They also have in common that one party is out of control.

“Have over a barrel” refers to the awkward position of one party.

“Have by the balls” refers to the power the second party has over the first party.

In substituting the former for the latter, the lawyer is not only softening the phrase and raising the register, but subtly shifting the focus of the mogul’s predicament. It is shifting from the mogul’s being under another's thrall to merely being in a vulnerable state.

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