Let me give two answers. The first is for the set of states of a normal human being. The second is for the set of states of one who has undergone injury.
I rather enjoyed the book The Head Trip: Adventures on the Wheel of Consciousness by Jeff Warren.
The Wheel of Consciousness describes twelve unique states of mind
available to us over a 24-hour day.
(from the website)
Wheel of consciousness is how the author has described the set of mental states. While he does not list "dead" or "comatose" in the set, he has broken "sleep" into several distinct states. Note that Warren describes the set of states of normal consciousness.
The OP may want the set of states of abnormality instead (indicating brain trauma, for example). This Traumatic Brain Injury page describes it as Levels of Consciousness.